Asymmetric encryption is a method of data encryption to protect information during its transmission using a public and private key. Keys are a pair of fairly large numbers, cryptographically linked to each other.
The public key is provided to an external audience, while the private key remains with the user and must be kept secret. In this case, there is no way, except for direct guessing, to figure out the private key based on the existing public key. Therefore, the actual encryption reliability depends primarily on the key length and the complexity of solving the problem for the technology that underlies the encryption algorithm.
Asymmetric cryptography works in such a way that data can be encrypted with one key and decrypted only with another key from a specified pair.
The asymmetric method solves the problem of symmetric encryption, in which one key is used for encoding and restoring data — and if it is transmitted through unsecured channels, there is a high probability of interception. However, asymmetric encryption is slower than symmetric, so both types are used in the crypto world.